The four pillars of modern society

These four are responsible for 17% of all energy consumed and 25% of CO2 emissions.

Cement 4,4 billion tons

A typical modern plant consumes 4 GJ of energy to produce one ton of cement, while the cement production in the world is about 3.6 billion tons per year. It was estimated that the cement manufacturing process consumes around 7% of industrial energy consumption, which, in turn, accounts for 30–40% of the global energy consumption.

Tensile strength 2-5 MPa, compressive strengt 15-70 MPa

Steel     1,95 billion tons

About 75% of steel is produced using the Blast Furnace-Basic Oxygen Furnace route. It produces steel using raw materials such as iron ore, coal, limestone and steel scrap.
25% of steel is made in an Electric Arc Furnace. that uses electricity to melt steel scrap. Depending on the plant configuration and availability of steel scrap, other sources such as direct-reduced iron can be used. Energy consumption per ton is reduced by 60% from 1960 til 2010.

900 kg per bil. per 100 millioner biler, så 90 millioner tonn stål. Stål utgjør bare 10% av flys tomvekt.

Tensile strength 400 MPa (structural) to 840 MPa (carbon steel), compressive strength 250 MPa

Plastic 390 million tons (100 million in 1989)

Will triple by 2060, and only 12% is recycled.

Ammonia 150 million tons

Necessary to feed 4 billion people. Produced at 150-250 bar and 400-500°C.
Hydrogen from natural gas. 80% used in fertilizer, the rest for explosives, floor cleaner etc.